Use of hyphens in academic writing
Example with an independent clause, showing two different approaches to capitalization: The commercials had one message: The geeks shall inherit the earth.
But when the phrase itself already contains one or more commas, dashes can help readers understand the sentence. Colons are used to separate titles from subtitles. Compounds can be correctly written as separate words, with hyphens or as one word e.
When writing out new, original, or unusual compound nouns, writers should hyphenate whenever doing so avoids confusion. Rule 9b.
Use of hyphens in academic writing
It is not used to introduce a direct quotation , except sometimes in novels, but this is not a usage you should imitate. There are two slightly different conventions for using a dash. Two dashes can emphasize material in the middle of a sentence. Following are two examples of well-advised hyphens: Confusing: Springfield has little town charm. For more information about punctuation, be sure to check out our handout on commas. One possible line of defence is certainly the drama of the single dash; since it breaks up a sentence in an unconventional manner, it does draw real attention to what follows it. You may lose clarity, and you will certainly lose formality. Example: Sir Winthrop Heinz-Eakins will attend. I could NOT do this: I went to the grocery store today; I bought a ton of fruit; apples, grapes, and pears were all on sale. Common colon mistakes 1. More than a third of registered voters oppose the measure. If the sentence merely tails off into silence, we use, not a dash, but a suspension. When using numbers, hyphenate spans or estimates of time, distance, or other quantities. The dash has only one use: a pair of dashes separates a strong interruption from the rest of the sentence. Because of this potential to change the meaning of something, the important thing when using hyphens is clarity.
University essay writing requires a word processing program that is up-to-date. How to check for mistakes Ask yourself a question: does the material preceding the colon stand on its own?
Hyphen at the end of a sentence
Ranges Hyphens should never be used in ranges of numbers. Example: Kurlansky, M. They could be used to join two but not all three of the independent clauses together. Back to top of page Hyphens to add prefixes A prefix is a group of letters added in front of a word to change its meaning and form a new word. Many writers forget the second hyphen: Incorrect: We have a two-year old child. Finally, please remember the practice of spelling premodifying compunds with hyphens, as illustrated in some of the examples above. Academic papers must follow specific protocols and author guidelines, and the information must be presented clearly and succinctly. You can use a colon to draw attention to many things in your writing. Many editors do not hyphenate certain well-known expressions. Finally, in the rare case in which a sentence is broken off abruptly without being completed, a single dash is also used: General Sedgwick's last words to his worried staff were "Don't worry, boys; they couldn't hit an elephant at this dist—". The main use of em dashes is to set part of a sentence apart from surrounding text, like brackets: The Etruscans—a largely mysterious civilisation—left behind few archaeological artefacts. Note that when hyphens are involved in expressing ages, two hyphens are required. A great way to reduce any ambiguity would be to rearrange the phrase and place the adjective after the noun e. For example, even though we could very well write as in 1 , we have to use the hyphen in 2 : 1 I find this paper well written. Here is where the semicolon can help.
The transport minister gave the go-ahead for the road project. For instance, we should not write ten year old children if we mean ten-year-old children, since ten year old children could equally well refer to ten children that are one year old i.
Here is an example: Recombinant DNA technology has left an indelible mark on the basic ingredient of human survival—food production.
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