When a black man was arrested on a white's complaint while a white man, identified by black witnesses as a suspect, was not, blacks attacked the arresting white officer and the riot was under way.
The local police made no attempt to control the situation. Their agents gave out travel passes whose cost was often deducted from future wages. During that period, the number of African-American schoolteachers more than doubled, the number of black-owned businesses tripled, and the literacy rate soared from 39 to 85 percent.
In addition, the political and social climate was deteriorating. He became a track star at UCLA and later joined the Los Angeles police force, rising to lieutenant, the highest rank allowed African-Americans in the s. The labor surplus now made it possible for employers to operate as if the unions did not exist.
For many of them, the 20th century was largely an era of migrating and marching until freedom, by law and in their hearts, was won.
Perhaps that is one reason they worked so hard at such a brutal system of subjugation. Though economic, social, environmental, and political forces were crucial to the migration, so too was the indomitable will of the African-American migrants, their burning desire to control their own destinies.
Sorry I was not here years ago. And a tornado triggered by the wings of a sea gull can never be unwound.