Strain theory control theory differential association theory labeling theory and conflict theory in
Sutherland 1939 differential association theory
Labeled persons may include drug addicts, alcoholics, criminals, delinquents, prostitutes, sex offenders, retarded people, and psychiatric patients, to mention a few. For example, juvenile gangs provide an environment in which young people learn to become criminals. By the time she was able to find a new job, the checks had bounced, and she was convicted of fraud under Mississippi law. Negatively, this means that the learning of criminal behavior is not restricted to the process of imitation. Crime occurs when the forces that bind people to society are weakened or broken. If he uses steroids, is that deviant? The principal part of the learning of criminal behavior occurs within intimate personal groups. If that commitment is absent, people are free to violate the law and engage in deviant behavior; the uncommitted are not deterred by the threat of legal punishments. Gang members learn to be deviant as they embrace and conform to their gang's norms. Others see themselves as beggars, convicts, or addicts.
It is possible that in some situations, steroids are medically necessary. Recent studies Sampson conducted with Lydia Bean revealed similar findings.
Sometimes, in more extreme cases, primary deviance can morph into secondary deviance. So think back on our early athlete. This is the principle of differential association. And strain theory suggests that if a person is blocked from attaining a culturally accepted goal, they become frustrated or strained and turn to deviance. If ex-criminals are disenfranchised from voting, are they being disenfranchised from society? The legal implications of being caught by authorities with crack versus cocaine were starkly different. If a person views social values as beliefs, he or she will conform to them. To this end, Agnew proposed a general strain theory that is neither structural nor interpersonal but rather individual and emotional, paying special attention to an individual's immediate social environment. When a norm is violated, it's referred to as deviance. Criticism[ edit ] Strain theory has received several criticisms, such as:   Strain theory best applies only to the lower class as they struggle with limited resources to obtain their goals. Anomie theory Anomie refers to the confusion that arises when social norms conflict or don't even exist. People learn deviance from the people with whom they associate.
Critics note the theory's lack of statements concerning the process of learning deviance, including the internal motivators for deviance. However, an act labeled as secondary deviance can produce more serious consequences. Criminal behavior is learnable and learned in interaction with other deviant persons.
This allows our team to focus on improving the library and adding new essays. So in this viewpoint, individuals in a group are pushed to attain certain goals, but they may not have the means or legitimate a way to achieve success.
These gangs define themselves as countercultural and glorify violence, retaliation, and crime as means to achieving social status.
In addition to the study done by Hirschi, strain theory was explored in a study conducted by Jason D.
based on 103 review