Social legal and ethical issues
Newborn screening ethical legal and social implications
Once DNA material has been submitted, there are few safeguards concerning other present or future uses that may be made of the material. The fundamental argument for excluding genetic discrimination in health insurance amounts to an argument for establishing a right to health care. Early identification of both groups, through a test for DNA variants of cytochrome P 2D6, could prevent much misery. Fear of losing health insurance in countries without national insurance systems is already a major cause of refusal of genetic testing 4 and may lead some people to refuse tests for potential reactions to drugs. Genetic testing may remove some of the uncertainties and make the information more comprehensible to the public. For example, Alexis and Noah Beery, a pair of Californian twins, were misdiagnosed with cerebral palsy, but DNA sequencing pointed to a new diagnosis, as well as a treatment, to which both children are responding well. In the absence of genetic testing, longer development or review time does not necessarily remove risk. Disclosure of familial genetic information: perceptions of the duty to inform. PPAB has been working with payers both private insurers and also the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services on the issue of reimbursement for new genetic and genomic tests.
Disclosure of familial genetic information: perceptions of the duty to inform. If, however, the needs are viewed as unfair as well as unfortunate, society may have a duty of justice to try to meet those needs. YouTube Genomics and Medicine Genomic medicine is an emerging medical discipline that involves using genomic information about an individual as part of their clinical care e.
Ethical issues in genetics
This novel approach only requires blood samples, and detects the levels of cell-free circulating DNA from the donor organ in the recipient's blood stream. According to Norman Daniels, there is "a clear mismatch between standard underwriting practices and the social function of health insurance" in providing individuals with resources for access to health care 22 see Chapter 7. Unlike infectious disease which can be viewed as external to the person , genetic disease may be viewed by people as an intractable part of their nature. Government action with respect to genetic diseases is likely to be regarded much differently, especially with respect to disorders for which an effective treatment does not exist and, consequently, the only medical procedure available is the abortion of an affected fetus. One challenge for policy posed by this wide array of testing settings is that many of the existing legal Page Share Cite Suggested Citation:"8 Social, Legal, and Ethical Implications of Genetic Testing. Legal Issues In the legal sphere, the principle of privacy is an umbrella concept encompassing issues of both autonomy and confidentiality. American Journal of Medical Genetics. The following addresses each of these issues. Probably not, because knowing that an animal might be miserable would only serve to make the patient feel more miserable and would not help the patient's health. Some share samples with other institutions. Formal justice requires treating similar cases in a similar way. Companies would be able to reduce the size of clinical trials, creating greater efficiency. American Journal of Human Genetics. Results should be released only to those individuals for whom the test recipient has given consent.
Once persons undergo genetic tests, privacy includes the right to make an informed, independent decision about whether—and which—others may know details of their genome e. One challenge for policy posed by this wide array of testing settings is that many of the existing legal Page Share Cite Suggested Citation:"8 Social, Legal, and Ethical Implications of Genetic Testing.
In the absence of genetic testing, longer development or review time does not necessarily remove risk. Often the group concerned is a genetic support group, which may have made the study possible by locating research participants.
Legal issues of genetic engineering
Rapid whole genome sequencing has been shown to provide a useful differential diagnosis within 50 hours for children in the neonatal intensive care unit. Insurance companies, which have heretofore not expressed an interest in population-wide testing, may be interested in the results of tests for drug reactions in order to exclude or charge higher premiums for those who can only tolerate very expensive drugs. Standards of substantive or material justice establish the identity of the relevant similarities and differences and the appropriate responses to those similarities and differences. The privacy of that information is a major concern to patients—in particular, who should have or needs access to that information. Duties to warn of possible adverse reactions and the need for premedication testing may need to be extended to include warning the general public, especially if there is direct advertising to potential patients. PPAB has also been working with other federal agencies on the regulation of genomic tests, both in research and in clinical practice. Should patients be told that their medications are derived from pharming and also about the condition of the animals? It can be overridden in some circumstances, for example, to prevent serious harm to others, as is the case in mandatory newborn screening for phenylketonuria PKU and hypothyroidism. In such cases, rules of confidentiality protect the information, but they can be overridden in order to protect some other value. Rules of confidentiality appear in virtually every code or set of regulations for health care relationships. Unlike much of the information currently available from genetic tests, responses to drugs are usually not in the family histories from which insurance companies get their information.
Companies would be able to reduce the size of clinical trials, creating greater efficiency. If a tendency to abuse alcohol, for example, were to have a genetic predisposition, an additional argument could be made for providing the same level of health care to everyone since a person does not choose his or her genetic propensities.
For genetic testing to be used safely and appropriately, these issues should be discussed with patients so they are aware of risks and benefits. The privacy of that information is a major concern to patients—in particular, who should have or needs access to that information.
American Journal of Human Genetics. However, other traditions say that animals and humans are all part of a continuum of life and that all suffering must be taken into account.
Once DNA material has been submitted, there are few safeguards concerning other present or future uses that may be made of the material.
based on 3 review