An overview of the europeans of the early 16th century
The change was gradual; Venice remained a great state, and Genoese merchants and bankers played a significant part in the Spanish economy.
For a long time it had been raw wool that the English sent abroad to be processed into woolen cloth in foreign countries. Here again the case of France is especially instructive.
Reformers in the Church of England alternated, for decades, between sympathies for ancient Catholic tradition and more Reformed principles, gradually developing, within the context of robustly Protestant doctrine, a tradition considered a middle way via media between the Roman Catholic and Protestant traditions. A new method of extracting the silver from the ore was developed, and the amount of silver reaching Spain became very great. The Reformation ended in division and the establishment of new church movements. After receiving Luther's letter, the archbishop sent it to Pope Leo X. The French Wars of Religion were among the most terrible of the century because they were primarily civil wars, and they caused great devastation; but France was, nevertheless, to become the dominant power in Europe in the seventeenth century. A female monarch in a male world, Elizabeth ruled through a combination of adroit political maneuvering and imperious command, enhancing her authority by means of an extraordinary cult of love. Almost everyone had a brush with smallpox and other deforming diseases, leaving survivors partially blind, pockmarked, or crippled. Culturally, new values—many of them associated with the Renaissance and Reformation—diffused through Europe and changed the ways in which people acted and the perspectives by which they viewed themselves and the world. The condemned man was strung up until he was almost dead from strangulation, then cut down, disemboweled while still alive, beheaded, and his trunk was then chopped into quarters.
The new Dutch republic formed its own East India Company in They had the effect, again combined with other factors, of directing the resources of Spain to unproductive uses, of stifling the development of the economy, and of preventing prosperity. The next two chapters in this section further explore the process of reform within Catholicism.
Luther began by criticizing the sale of indulgencesinsisting that the Pope had no authority over purgatory and that the Catholic doctrine of the merits of the saints had no foundation in the gospel. Fragile food supply and famine.
This is shown in an extraordinary letter of from Fugger to the emperor, in an attempt to collect the money Charles owed him. The affronts remained verbal until the rule of Elizabeth. In England a number of companies of this nature were formed during the sixteenth century. There were consequently numerous reasons why the tax structures of the European states failed to meet their expanding needs and why various other expedients, generally unhealthy, were tried. Thus, in , Philip decided to invade England and immediately set out to create the largest marine force that the world had yet witnessed. Historians began to concentrate on the values, beliefs and behavior of the people at large. Several states expelled Jews, and almost all of them refused to tolerate religious dissenters. Many were consumed by hunger, especially nursing mothers and their babies. Jacob argues that there has been a dramatic shift in the historiography of the Reformation. Eire argues that these changes were most manifest in how each religion responded to the relationship between matter and the spirit, the natural and the supernatural, and the living and the dead. This process was stimulated by the great demand, both domestic and foreign, for English wool. During the 16th century, Spain and Portugal , explored the Indian Ocean and opened worldwide oceanic trade routes, and Vasco Da Gama was given permission by the Indian Sultans to settle in the wealthy Bengal Sultanate. Wage laborers looking for jobs helped the English population shift from the rural countryside to congested cities. All three kingdoms - Spain, France and England - also compete in another context, across the Atlantic. The movement now known as the Renaissance unleashed new ideas and new social, political and economic forces that gradually displaced the spiritual and communal values of the Middle Ages.
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