In the figure, hubs are highlighted in orange. Both the network and igraph packages use the base plotting system of R. The funnels and connecting tubing represent the nodes and the connections between nodes, respectively. Objects can be topologically equivalent while appearing physically different.
In simple cases the Minimum Spanning Tree problem is addressed with an algorithm that involves picking an arbitrary node and connecting it to a neighbor while preserving lowest cost, and then repeating this procedure connecting an unconnected lowest cost neighbor to the aggregate.
Another disadvantages lies with the top level node. Reference 7 also discusses a computation algorithm for routing optimization in a Mesh Topology Network.
Through these types of studies, the category of the grid structure could be identified from the complex network perspective e.